WebRTC (Web Real Time Communication): is a free, open source project that enables web browsers with real-time communication capabilities. WebRTC doesn’t require any plug-ins or applications. The technology allows video, audio streaming, and data sharing between clients.
Routing: a process performed by network layer in order to deliver the packet. It chooses the optimal path from one network to another. 3 types of routing: a.) static routing, b.) default routing, c.) dynamic routing
- Static routing: manually adding routers into routing table. Advantages of this are that it is more secure, there is no bandwidth usage, and there is “no routing overhead for router CPU which means a cheaper router can be used to do routing.”
- Default routing: this routing doesn’t care about which network the packet belongs to. It will send all packets towards a single router that is configured for it to be sent to.
- Dynamic routing: this routing makes automatic adjustments of the routes according to the current state of the route in the routing table. When the router finds a change in the topology then the router advertises it to all the other routers. The advantage of dynamic routing are that it is more effective at finding the best route and that it’s easy to configure. Disadvantages are that is consumes more bandwidth and is less secure than static routing.
- Reference: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/types-of-routing/
UTF: character encoding capable of encoding all possible characters (also known as code points) in unicode. UTF stands for Unicode Transformation Format.
- Main difference between UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-32 character encoding is how many bytes it requires to present a character in memory.
- UTF-8: minimum of 1 byte
- UTF-16: minimum of 2 bytes
- UTF-32: fixed at 4 bytes
- Reference: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2241348/what-is-unicode-utf-8-utf-16
- Helpful image:
TCP vs UDP: stands for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/ Internet Protocol (IP). UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol.
- “TCP provides a way to deliver and receive an ordered and error-checked stream of information packets over the network.”
- TCP is most commonly used protocol on the Internet
- When you request a site, your computer sends TCP packets to the web server’s address. The server sends back a stream of TCP packet, which your web browser stitches together to form the web page.
- TCP is very reliable! Packets are sent with TCP are tracked so no data is lost or corrupted in the transit.
- It is able to be this reliable because it orders packets by numbering them. It error-checks by having the recipient send a response back to the sender saying that is has received the message.
- Error correction built it/ more reliable –> but slower
- “UDP is used by apps to deliver a faster stream of information by doing away with error-checking.”
- “When an app uses UDP, packets are just sent to the recipient. The sender doesn’t wait to make sure the recipient received the packet – it just keeps sending packets.”
- They can be lost, sender won’t resend them. Losing all the check-ins means faster communication time though!
- “UDP is used when speed is desirable and error correction isn’t necessary.” Often used for live broadcasts and online games.
- No error correction –> but so fast!
- Reference: https://www.howtogeek.com/190014/htg-explains-what-is-the-difference-between-tcp-and-udp/